Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broadcasting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor and, subsequently, the integrated circuit brought down the cost of electronics to the point where they can be used in almost any household object.
The academic study of electric machines is the universal study of electric motors and electric generators. By the classic definition, electric machine is synonymous with electric motor or electric generator, all of which are electromechanical energy converters: converting electricity to mechanical power (i.e., electric motor) or mechanical power to electricity (i.e., electric generator). The movement involved in the mechanical power can be rotating or linear. Although transformers do not contain any moving parts they are also included in the family of electric machines because they utilise electromagnetic phenomena.
Electric machines (i.e., electric motors) consume approximately 60% of all electricity produced. Electric machines (i.e., electric generators) produce virtually all electricity consumed. Electric machines have become so ubiquitous that they are virtually overlooked as an integral component of the entire electricity infrastructure. Developing ever more efficient electric machine technology and influencing their use are crucial to any global conservation, green energy, or alternative energy strategy.